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Reporting Case Studies

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Crime Drop? How Data-Driven Reporting Fueled an Investigation of the Milwaukee Police Department’s Flawed Data

In 2008, the Milwaukee Police Department began reporting significant declines in crime under new Chief Ed Flynn, sworn in on January 7 that year. Like many modern law enforcement executives, Flynn had arrived on a promise of a data-driven approach to police department management. He said he should be held accountable for the city’s crime statistics.

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Crime Reporting Case Study: The Philadelphia Inquirer, "Justice: Delayed, Dismissed, Denied."

By Debora Halpern Wenger

A team of five reporters for the Philadelphia Inquirer has been documenting serious problems in Philadelphia’s court system for more than two years for their groundbreaking series, "Justice: Delayed, Dismissed, Denied." Their investigation found that the city had the highest violent crime rate among America's 10 largest cities and among the lowest conviction rates for big cities. Nearly two-thirds of all defendants accused of violent crimes in Philadelphia have been allowed to walk free.

University of Missouri journalism professor Debora Halpern Wenger interviewed the reporting team about  their investigative techniques.

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Read the NICAR tip sheet the Philadelphia Inquirer team put together.

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Crime Reporting Case Study: Memphis Commercial Appeal

In a series called “True Crime,” published between September 27 and December 18, 2009, the paper sought to depict the truth about crime in their city through an innovative mapping project.

Read the case study. Click here and the document will download to your desktop.

Learn how to create your own crime database. Click here and the document will download to your desktop.

Contact reporters, editors and computer reporters for additional information. Click here and the document will download to your desktop.

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Media Crime Coverage in the United States 2008

In 2008, there was no dominant event in crime and justice for the news media to cover, according to a report prepared by Criminal Justice Journalists on Media Crime Coverage in the United States.

Due to the lack of a sensational case, such as O.J. Simpson or Laci Petersen, blanketing news coverage, the study explores some of the major crime and justice issues that made the news in 2008 and assess how well or poorly the news media covered them.

Access a copy of the study here.

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Probation and Parole South Carolina:Case Study



A Public At Risk: A look at South Carolina's Broken Probation and Parole System

A project of the Center on Media, Crime & Justice

and Criminal Justice Journalists


Debora Wenger

University of Mississippi

 Kendra Gentry

John Jay College of Criminal Justice


Crime Reporting Case Study:  Probation and Parole

Deb Halpern Wenger, University of Mississippi


“Criminals free on probation or parole kill, rob and rape all too often in a state where repeat offenders routinely are released into a system that is too under-manned and ill-equipped to maintain control.”

                                                   Doug Pardue, Glenn Smith

The Post and Courier


It’s estimated that two-thirds of America’s criminals under correctional supervision are living in the community, not in prisons.  According to research by the Pew Center on the States, one in 45 American adults is on probation or parole. 

          More than a year before the Pew Center’s study was released; investigative reporters Doug Pardue and Glenn Smith of The Post and Courier in Charleston, South Carolina began looking into why their state seemed to have so many cases of violent crimes being committed by people who had been paroled or placed on probation.

          Pardue, who also edited the five-part series, “Law and Disorder,” said the first thing to overcome in tackling this story was the “it’s not new” bias.  Stories on individual crimes often note that the accused person was on probation or parole, but journalists rarely take a systemic look at how the justice system decides who should be in custody and for how long.

          “I can’t tell you how many times I’ve started to look at something and a reporter says, ‘We’ve already done that.’ Lots of people touch on lots of issues, but often there’s not a thorough look. We saw very few cases where journalists took on all the contributing institutions to really investigate the issue,” Pardue said.

          Pardue and Smith spent more than six months trying to determine what was at the heart of what appeared to be a serious breakdown in South Carolina’s system for handling people on probation and parole. They found those tasked with supervising inmates in the community to be dealing with overwhelmingly large caseloads and a lack of sometimes basic resources, judges struggling to balance the need to alleviate the strain on overcrowded prisons and a desire to protect citizens, and story after story of victims who paid the price for the system’s failures.


Too many to monitor


          Probation and parole agents are on the front lines of the battle to control those inmates whom the state has returned to the community under supervision.  In South Carolina, the newspaper reported that each agent has an average caseload of more than 109 offenders – that’s 34 more than the recommended national average.  In one instance, the reporters found two agents who each must keep track of about 181 people – 106 more than the national standard.

          “These poor officers; in most cases, they don’t get to help people break the cycle of crime – the reason why they got into the business in the first place,” Smith said.

          Through multiple interviews with agents, Smith found that the social worker function of the position – the opportunity to connect offenders with jobs and services that might help them avoid a life of crime – is largely a thing of the past.  Agent Kescia Holmes told the paper she took the job hoping to make a difference, but her heavy caseload has offered a brutal reality check.


“I know I can’t save 150 people,” Holmes, 36, said.  “I used to be real hard on myself, more than anything.  But then I just came to the realization that there’s no way a person comes in and sits with me for a period of, at the most, 15 or 20 minutes and all of a sudden I can change their world.  I can’t do that.”


Smith said the state’s top probation and parole officials were reluctant to cooperate on the project, so the rank and file agents were invaluable in fully reporting the story.  Smith says their anecdotes made the series.


Judgment day


The Post and Courier’s stories placed little blame on police and probation agents for the role they play in trying to handle problem criminals, but the reporting was somewhat less sympathetic to the judiciary.

The paper reported that “between 2003 and 2007, less than half of the 64,970 criminals arrested for violating the terms of their releases had their probation revoked by a judge.”

At the same time, Pardue and Smith made it clear that the sheer volume of cases makes it difficult for judges to be thoughtful and thorough.  The paper noted that often, “in just minutes, [judges] must decide who gets another shot at probation and who should be shipped off to prison.”

Factor in the very real obstacles presented by the state’s overcrowded prisons and the annual cost of incarceration versus probation (in 2007, $14,093 per inmate in prison vs. $1,080 per offender on regular probation), and it’s not difficult to see why judges often err on the side of giving offenders another chance.

          It may also be that the judges are just playing the odds.  According to the paper, “state officials boast an overall 65 percent success rate for people completing their supervised release time without repeat criminal activity, but that leaves 35 percent who might continue to prey on their communities.”


“I live in fear all the time of not putting someone in jail who should be put in jail and then having them go out and commit one of these horrible crimes,” Circuit Judge Thomas Hughston said.


Victims’ stories


          Throughout the series, the system’s inability to protect the public adequately was made apparent through the stories of more than a dozen victims.  One of the most compelling was that of Julianne Blakeley.  The 63-year-old woman was found dead, raped and murdered by a man who had been released on parole two months earlier.  It was the third time in five years that the suspect had been freed on probation or parole, and each time he went on to commit more and more serious crimes.

          “It was very easy to see early on there are great human stories to tell,” Pardue said.




The series strove to go beyond simply outlining the problems and tried to offer potential solutions as well.  For example, the reporters looked at states that had abolished parole in an attempt to tackle the problems inherent in the system.  They talked with Professor Ronald Wright at Wake Forest University, who says approximately 20 states have abolished parole.  Most have also adopted sentencing reform to prompt judges to impose shorter and more equitable sentences.  Without that, Wright says prisons would all too quickly become even more overcrowded.

In addition, the reporters spoke with South Carolina’s attorney general, who advocates allowing most non-violent criminals to go free under the control of a judge who could lock them up at any time for violating the conditions of release. They talked with others who simply recommended more funding for the probation and parole agency.

Pardue says the series had immediate statewide impact.  In the aftermath of their reporting, the state’s two top legislative officials--the leaders of both the senate and the house--said that the stories provided a roadmap for what needed to be done to solve the system’s problems.  Pardue says they promised they would push through bills to correct the situation.

But the economy took a nosedive soon after the series was published in August 2008.

“The budget crisis killed the desire to make changes.  Probation and parole are in worse shape now than when we reported the series,” Pardue said.


How they did it


            Smith and Pardue worked together on the project, in and around other stories.  After about 30 years of investigative reporting and editing, Pardue says he finds team reporting is generally the best approach. For example, Smith is a veteran crime reporter.

          “It’s often good to have a beat expert plus a pure investigative reporter, and that way the two can work together from their strengths,” Pardue said.  He also points out the added benefit of having someone to keep your spirits up during a sometimes tedious investigative process.

          Though the series was fairly data rich, both Smith and Pardue commented on the difficulty of finding sources for statistics on this topic. 

           “We mined what we could out of federal sources, (such as) the Bureau of Justice Statistics, but there doesn’t seem to be a central clearinghouse for information,” Smith said.

          At the state level, Smith found some of the key data were online.  For example, the probation and parole board provided information on the inmates under its supervision, as did the corrections department, but Pardue was frustrated by not being able to say exactly how many people on probation commit more major crimes.  In the end, that forced the two reporters to focus the series on people vs. statistics.

          “What I liked best about the series is that it really took you out to the front lines to the people doing the work and the people affected by the work,” Smith said.

          That desire to show and tell led Smith to produce a video story which detailed a new strategy probation and parole officers were using to crack down on violators.   The approach involved pairing police with agents on warrant sweeps and home visits.  The video was published on the paper’s Web site and promoted in the paper along with a map showing where all the inmates under supervision in the city were located. 

          “It’s always helpful to hear from a few people in their own voices, helpful to see people in action trying to do their jobs,” said Pardue.


More stories


Pardue says the paper’s investigative team has a commitment to continue reporting on this topic.  “Follow up is the most critical thing to make sure you accomplish what you set out to do.  Investigative reporting is trying to fix things,” Pardue said. 

Pardue also believes this story can and should be done in other markets.  He suggests starting with a search through your newsroom archives for stories that indicate a criminal got out of prison and victimized someone innocent.  “You have to shock yourself first, make yourself realize this really is a problem.  Not a bureaucratic problem of how many officers per inmate, you have to start seeing it in the eyes of innocent victims.”


A day in court

Smith believes a strong story could be done by simply spending a day or two in court watching how probation violations are handled.  The paper’s series included an anecdote about a police officer who sat through 43 probation hearings one day to see what happened.  All but three violators remained on probation or were set free with no additional reporting requirements.


Criminal backgrounds

Another idea comes from one of the prosecutors interviewed for the series.  Seventh Circuit Solicitor Trey Gowdy said, “You would be hard-pressed to find a serious violent crime in your jurisdiction or my jurisdiction where you can’t find the point on the suspect’s rap sheet where he or she should have been in prison and not on the street to commit a crime.”  It would be easy enough to take five or six high-profile crimes in your area and do just that to help illustrate the impact of a faulty system.


Scrutinizing second chances

Smith says one thing he would have liked to do for the series they produced is to track over time some of those on probation or parole.  “The idea is to look at someone who gets a second chance, follow them for several months to see what happens,” Smith suggests.


That idea dovetails with something Pardue wants the investigative unit to pursue – a deeper look at the corrections system as a whole.  For example, Smith will be exploring what impact the corrections department has on inmates – what are they like when they’re released from prison, what kind of rehabilitation actually occurs inside and how hard is it to make a life when you have to deal with issues such as carrying an ID that says “released prisoner?”  In addition, reporters might check on how states and localities use aid under a new federal law called the Second Chance Act, which supports programs that help former inmates re-enter society successfully.


Smith says reporters who tell these stories are doing important work. 


“Why tell the story?  People’s lives depend on it.  As state budgets shrink, there’s more pressure to take people out of prison and put them on the street.  If the state can’t handle them effectively, people are going to get hurt,” Smith said.


Crime Reporting Case Study:  Resource Guide for Reporting on Prisoner Reentry, Probation and Parole

Kendra Gentry, John Jay College of Criminal Justice



Alexander, M., & VanBenschoten, S. (2008). Evolution of supervision in the federal probation system. Federal Probation, 72(2), 15-21.


Petersilia, Joan (2004). What Works in Prisoner Reentry? Reviewing and Questioning the Evidence. Federal Probation, 68(2), 4-9.


Taxman, F.S., Young, D. & Byrne, J.  (2004).  Transforming offender reentry into public safety:  Lessons from OJP’s Reentry Partnership Initiative. Justice Policy and Research, 5(2),101-128.



The Pew Center on the States (2009). One in 31:  The Long Reach of American Corrections. http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/report_detail.aspx?id=49382


Travis, J. (2000). But They All Come Back: Rethinking Prisoners Reentry. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.



Lynch, J., and Sabol, W. (2001). Crime Policy Report: Prisoner Reentry in Perspective. The Urban Institute. http://www.urban.org/pdfs/410213_reentry.pdf


Solomon, A. L., Kachnowski, V., & Bhati, A.(2005). Does Parole Work? Analyzing the Impact of Postprison Supervision on Rearrest Outcomes.




American Correctional Association



American Probation and Parole Association



Association of Paroling Authorities International



National Institute of Corrections



New York State Parole Project – Vera Institute



Reentry – U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs



Serious and Violent Offender Re-Entry Initiative




United States Parole Commission





Urban Institute



Prisoner Reentry Institute, John Jay College of Criminal Justice




“Oakland Police Shootings Stoke Criticism of Parole Oversight”

Los Angeles Times

March 24, 2009

by Andrew Blankstein and Maria L. LaGanga


“Allegations of Impropriety Surround Parole Commission”

Washington Post

May 26, 2009

by Joe Stephens


“Abolish Parole”

New York Times Op-Ed

October 28, 2007

by Jeffrey A. Meyer and Linda Ross Meyer

Quinnipiac University School of Law professors




Joan Petersilia, Ph.D.

Professor, Criminology, Law & Society

University of California, Irvine

Co-Director, UCI Center on Evidence-Based Corrections

University of California, Irvine


949-824-7372 (assistant)



James M. Byrne, Ph.D.

Professor, Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology

University of Massachusetts - Lowell




 A copy of the study can be accessed here.

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Mortgage Fraud: Charlotte Observer Case Study

beazer-foreclose1Crime Reporting Case Study:  Mortgage Fraud

Deborah Potter, NewsLab


“This was happening all over and everybody was in on the scheme.”

--Patrick Scott, business editor, The Charlotte Observer


For years, it seemed the sky was the limit for real estate in Charlotte, N.C.   The second largest U.S. banking center after New York City was one of the nation’s fastest growing areas in the early 2000s. But the boom in home sales was driven in part by subprime loans that resulted in a wave of foreclosures.

In 2007, a year-long investigation by The Charlotte Observer found the surge in foreclosures “had as much to do with the builder as it did the borrower,” said business editor Patrick Scott.

The builder was Atlanta-based Beazer Homes USA, at the time one of the ten largest home builders in the country. The newspaper found it had aggressively sold starter homes in the Charlotte area to low income buyers in ways that made a high rate of foreclosures inevitable. A Beazer subsidiary arranged larger loans than many buyers could afford and sold homes for more than they were worth. The paper uncovered falsified mortgage documents and apparent violations of federal law, as well as federal and state lending rules.

The sales strategy was a financial success for the home builder, the paper reported, but the new neighborhoods fell apart. At the time the series ran, almost one in five buyers in Beazer’s Southern Chase subdivision had lost their homes to foreclosure, more than six times the national rate.

That neighborhood was not an exception. The paper’s investigation found that in dozens of newly-built developments of low-priced homes around Charlotte, foreclosure rates were 20 percent or higher.

“Prices fell. Renters moved in. Crime sometimes rose,” the paper reported. “But as the foreclosures piled up, authorities were unaware.” The investigation revealed that no one was tracking foreclosures at that time—not the city, the county, the state or the federal government.

“Nobody ever had shown the public officials that there’s an issue here that needs to be recognized, and a problem in the growth of Charlotte, which has been pretty lax in any sort of regulation,” said Scott.

“We knew immediately that we had written something profoundly powerful,” said lead reporter Binyamin Appelbaum. “What was less clear for a while was what difference it was going to make.”


Faces of foreclosure


          The newspaper’s four-part series, Sold a Nightmare, put a human face on the subprime meltdown as it pinpointed who was to blame. Beazer marketed its homes at apartment complexes, taking people like 20-year-old maintenance worker Chris Wood on tours of its new developments.


“I went in thinking, ‘I don’t make enough money. I’m making $9 an hour,’ ” Wood recalled.

He was startled when a Beazer employee told him he could afford a home. He borrowed $500 from his grandmother to make the deposit.

As it turned out, he didn’t make enough money. Wood’s final loan application misstated his income and debts. Without the misstatements, he did not appear to meet FHA’s requirements for the loan he needed.

He was suddenly spending 45 percent of his income on debt payments each month. He was in trouble almost instantly.


While the paper repeatedly noted that buyers like Wood share responsibility for loans they accept, the series “explored how the bad actors operate,” said database editor Ted Mellnik, who developed an interactive online map of the neighborhood that vividly illustrated the scope of the problem. The map highlighted every foreclosed home in the Southern Chase neighborhood and linked to background information and a photograph.


 “What I liked about that map was it really let people visualize this neighborhood and see what kind of houses they are, and kind of in a way see what kind of people they are,” Mellnik said.  “People could see this isn’t a crummy slum somewhere and this should be sort of a normal neighborhood.”

The online package also included video profiles of two couples who owned homes at Southern Chase. “They were really critical to hearing the stories of the homeowners and seeing…how these people really were bright, average, ordinary people,” said business editor Patrick Scott, “It’s not like [Rick Santelli of CNBC] on the floor of the stock exchange talking about loser homeowners who took on the bad loans knowing that they shouldn’t have. This wasn’t the case.”




The series provoked an immediate outcry from local and state officials. “There was a tremendous amount of outrage about the facts we were reporting,” Appelbaum said.  During the reporting process, however, “the FBI had made it very clear to us they were not interested in mortgage fraud, they were busy preventing terrorism,” he said; the US attorney for the Western District of North Carolina[Preferred1]  was equally uninterested. After the stories ran, federal and state agencies announced investigations.

“The FBI basically told us that they were investigating this because they couldn’t ignore it,” Appelbaum said. “We had detailed a case that was so blunt and clear in its particulars and massive in its implications that they had to deal with it.”

North Carolina wound up passing legislation “ensuring that lenders can’t make loans without understanding whether the people have the ability to pay them,” said Scott.

Beazer eventually admitted that some employees had violated federal lending rules and got out of the mortgage lending business. The company fired its chief accounting officer for attempting to destroy documents.[i] It remains under investigation by the FBI, the Internal Revenue Service and the Department of Housing and Urban Development for possible criminal violations. The North Carolina Real Estate Commission is also investigating the company's lending practices.

“It’s always extremely gratifying when you can do a project that is a public service that has a wide reach and a broad scope and you did before almost every other newspaper in the nation,” Mellnik said.

“We surprised some people,” said reporter Lisa Hammersly, who also worked on the series. “It woke some people up. I don’t think enough change came out of it, but it may yet. It’s not over.”


How they did it


           “Sold a Nightmare” was the third major housing investigation The Charlotte Observer had published in less than three years. In 2005, the paper discovered that minorities were more likely than whites to get risky, high-priced loans. The next year, the paper looked at the result: a pattern of foreclosures never seen before, concentrated in brand new suburban neighborhoods built for lower-income buyers. The unanswered question was, why?

          “We knew there was something smelly going on,” said Mellnik. “It was just a question of whether it could be nailed down.”

          Appelbaum, one of the Observer’s banking reporters, worked alone on the project for months while also reporting other stories. He knew he was onto something criminal very early on, after seeing that one Southern Chase homeowner’s income had been inflated on his final loan application. “That was mortgage fraud plain and clear,” Appelbaum said. “Who was guilty was a different question.

“My concern was to build up a pattern of evidence that would show that this had happened broadly and systematically and that people had been taken advantage of.”   

Eventually, Appelbaum was assigned to the project full time, with help from Mellnik and Hammersly. To nail down the numbers, they examined county property records, building permits, court bankruptcy records and Federal Housing Administration data.  Mellnik created a map of Southern Chase by “scraping” data from county government Web sites, including photos of each house, parcel maps and an ArcView shapefile. Appelbaum and Hammersly also spent countless hours in Southern Chase.

“Much of the information you need is not in public records at all, either print or electronic,” Appelbaum said. “You had to knock on enough doors and convince enough people to trust you with their personal, confidential financial records and you had to know what you were looking for when you got those records, and you had to believe it was worth doing that 200, 400, 600 times before you were sure you saw a pattern.”

Just seeing a pattern wasn’t enough, Hammersly said. “When you can gather the documents, then what you need is sound experts who can walk you through it, look at the documents and say, ‘Here’s a problem,” Hammersly said. “It took some looking to find people willing to do it.”

The reporters consulted forensic appraisal experts as well as the state banking commission and the Securities and Exchange Commission. “You have to look at who the regulators are [and talk to them],” said Hammersly. “The banks did not want to talk about what it was like to be left on the hook.”

Getting through to Beazer was even more difficult. The company insisted Southern Chase was just an aberration, so the paper collected data showing that half the builder’s other neighborhoods around Charlotte had even higher foreclosure rates. “They stopped talking to us after that,” said Scott.

By the time the series was ready for publication, the Observer team had grown to 20, including researchers, photographers and designers. The project included eight stories, which ran over four days, along with buyer profiles and “how to” information that Appelbaum described as “a guide to the perplexed, a set of instructions for helping yourself.”

          Using graphics and break-out boxes, the paper explained in simple terms how no-money-down loans and teaser rates can hurt buyers, and how foreclosures damage people and neighborhoods. “We used the pages inside to do explanatory journalism on a really confusing thing,” said Scott, “trying to break this down into components that were clear and meaningful.”


Next steps


Foreclosures in many other areas have been well documented by journalists since the Observer’s series ran. But[Preferred2]  the Charlotte journalists believe there is still fertile ground to be explored.


FHA lending

          Low-down-payment mortgages insured by the Federal Housing Administration account for nearly a third of all mortgage loans now being made, according to an investigation by The Washington Post, which found signs that the program is being seriously abused.[ii]

“That agency is really ill equipped to be providing or backing and overseeing loans,” said Scott.


The toll of foreclosures

          When a community is riddled with foreclosures, “the pain is just extraordinary,” said Hammersly. She urged reporters to examine the issues on an extremely local level. “The closest look in your own neighborhood can be more telling that all the ‘suits’ holding news conferences across the country.”

For Appelbaum, the important question is what happens next to communities like Southern Chase all over the country, and to the people who live there[Preferred3] . “Those are now our new slums, our new forgotten places,” he said. “There’s a real chance the solution to this crisis is just to walk away from too many of those people and it’s a topic that deserves more coverage than it’s gotten.”


Access a resource guide on mortgage foreclosures




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